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The operating theatre is a complicated area where a patient undergoing a surgery is a great priority. It is important to identify the causes of patient harm and act to eliminate or correct the practices that are known to be unsafe or wasteful. Therefore the work and relaxation areas for staff must be put into the plans early during the planning phase and should be well limited yet accessible from the outside if required.
ICU as the name suggests “intensive care unit” is the area of a hospital which is staffed, furnished and dedicated towards the care of critically sick people. Designed, staffed, furnished and dedicated towards the management of critically sick patients or complications.
The operating theatre should be a purposely built independent complex located away from the main flow of traffic but in an area easily accessible.
It is recommended that all surface materials should be hard, non-porous, fire resistant, waterproof, stain proof, seamless and easy to clean
Ideally, sliding or swing doors should be used in the OT and ICU. Sliding doors are recommended which must remain closed at all times, particularly in an OT during an operation because the microbial count in the air rises every time doors swing open
Floors should be smooth, without cracks and breaks, made of materials that will reduce static and should not endanger the safety of any patient.
Most OT and ICU lights are white fluorescent because they cast a minimal shadow. Lighting should be evenly distributed throughout the room. The anesthetist must also have sufficient light.
The ventilation system in the OT and ICU must be mechanical ventilation, supplied from an independent air handling unit which ensures a controlled, filtered, clean air supply. Air changes and circulation provide fresh air and prevent circulation of anesthetic gases in the room.